Relevant Finger Anatomy

Finger anatomy includes the bones, joints, nerves and blood vessels of the finger.

Each finger is made of three bones called the phalanges. Starting from the finger tip to the knuckle they are

  • distal phalanx
  • middle phalanx
  • proximal phalanx

The thumb has no middle phalanx.

Each finger also has three joints which are

  • the distal inter-phalangeal (DIP) joint between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx
  • the proximal inter-phalangeal (PIP) joint between the middle phalanx and proximal phalanx
  • the metacarpo-phalangeal (MP) joint between the head of metacarpal and the proximal phalanx

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finger anatomy

Movements occuring at the different joints are

  • flexion and extension at all the three joints
  • abduction and adduction (side to side movement) at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint

Flexion at the DIP joint is produced by flexor digitorum profundus muscle.

Flexion at the PIP joint is produced by flexor digitorum superficialis muscle.

Abduction and adduction (side to side movement) at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint is produced by the palmer and dorsal interossei muscles.

finger movement abduction

This photograph shows abduction movement of the fingers. This movement is produced by the dorsal interossei muscles.

This photograph shows adduction movement that is caused by the palmar interossei muscles.

Extension of all the joints is caused by extensor digitorum muscle.

Each finger has a pair of digital arteries and nerves.

finger anatomy cross section

I hope the information provided was helpful. If you have any query you can ask me at the contact me page.

This page was last updated on 13th March 2009.

See also...

Hand Anatomy

Wrist Anatomy

Causes of finger joint pain...

Finger Fracture

Mallet Finger

Finger Amputation

Glomus Tumor


Trigger Finger

Swan Neck Deformity

Boutonniere Deformity

Kirner Deformity


Bowlers Thumb

Thumb Dislocation

Go back from Finger Anatomy to Finger Pain


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